Application for ELLs - Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
Classroom Practice in Reinforcing Effort
- Teach and exemplify the connection between effort and achievement.
Explicit teaching is critical for ELLs
- Students can see the connection between effort and achievement by periodically keeping track of their effort and its relationship to achievement. Some rubrics for achievement and effort are included in the Ideas & Strategies section of this website.
Classroom Practice in Providing Recognition
- Make the recognition as personal to the student as possible.
- The Pause, Prompt and Praise strategy of providing recognition is best used when students are engaged in a particularly demanding task. (Ask student to pause when having difficulty; give strategies during prompt portion; if performance improves, provide "praise").
Giving strategies benefit ELLs and are crucial for them to succeed, but the recognition once they have used a strategy correctly, helps to create motivation.
- Concrete, symbolic tokens of recognition can be given in addition to verbal for accomplishing specific performance goals.
"For ELLs, a happy face sticker can have more meaning than a written comment." (p. 94, Hill & Flynn)
Adapting Personalized Recognition to the Stages of Language Acquisition
- Preproduction Recognize students moving from being nonverbal to verbal in English.
- Early Production Recognize students for speaking in complete sentences.
- Speech Emergence Recognize students for using expressions that more fluent and complete.
- Intermediate Recognize students for using past tense when speaking and or writing, and/or for improving common word spelling.
- Advanced Recognize students for a variety of tenses, especially modals such as would, could, should, and/or for using complex sentences, as well as use of academic language.