Resources - Nonlinguistic Representations

An outline of how to create various types of graphic organizers for different purposes.

Creating Graphic Organizers

Excellent research article from Focus on Effectiveness: Focus on Effectiveness is a product of the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. These materials are in the public domain and may be reproduced without permission. The following acknowledgment is requested on materials which are reproduced: Developed by the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory, Portland, Oregon.

Focus on Effectiveness; (pdf)

Power Point Presentation that includes rationale for using non-linguistic representations and classroom applications.

Non-linguistic representations power point

Hill, J. & Flynn, K. (2006) Classroom Instruction that Works with English Language Learners. Alexandria, VA: A.S.C.D.

Marzano,R., Pickering, D., & Pollack, J. (2001) Classroom Instruction that Works. Pearson

Brechtel, M. (2001) Bringing It All Together. Dominie Press


Technology Resources

Marzano: Nonlinguistic Representation

View more presentations from Donna Murray.


Additional Resources

The Council for Exceptional Children provides a bibliography and resources about graphic organizers.

Carleton College publishes a Web site about teaching with visualization.

ESRI maintains a variety of Web resources to support the use of global information systems (GIS) in the K-12 classroom, including case studies about schools that have used mapping software to support student learning.

(From Focus on Effectiveness